International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison

Urban Model Comparison Questionnaire

Objective

The aim of this project is to evaluate numerical models to simulate heat fluxes by performing a multi-step model comparison of urban surface energy balance schemes with observational datasets. This will consist of leading a four-step study, where the forcing data are released in a controlled and systematic way.

Background

There has been a rapid increase in the number of land-atmosphere exchange models which explicitly parameterize urban surfaces. The models are being developed for a wide range of purposes, which includes improved weather forecasting, climate predictions, air quality forecasting and assessment of the impact of mitigation strategies.

Given that a number of models have now been developed, our objective is to investigate questions such as: do the models produce physically realistic simulations of urban heat exchange; how complex do parameterizations of heat exchange need to be; and to quantify costs (computer time, data requirements) versus the benefits (improvement in model prediction).

Methodology

The methodology established by the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) is adopted here (Henderson-Sellers et al. 1993). Initially participants were provided with very limited information about the chosen site(s) apart from the forcing variables. Then in subsequent runs, more information will be provided to ensure that a controlled experiment is achieved. The methodology described here has been endorsed by the GLASS panel (who coordinate the PILPS experiments) in September 2005, and they are committed to a regular review of the project.

Publications

 1 Best, M. J. and Grimmond, C. S. B. (2016) Investigation of the impact of anthropogenic heat flux within an urban land surface model and PILPS-urban. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 126 (1). pp. 51-60. ISSN 0177-798X doi: 10.1007/s00704-015-1554-3
2. Best, M. J. and Grimmond, C. S. B. (2016) Modelling the partitioning of turbulent fluxes at urban sites with varying vegetation cover. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17 (10). pp. 2537-2553. ISSN 1525-7541 doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0126.1 filefile
3. Best, M. J. and Grimmond, C. S. B. (2015) Key conclusions of the first international urban land surface model comparison project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96 (5). pp. 805-819. ISSN 1520-0477 doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00122.1 file
4. Best, M. and Grimmond, C. S. B. (2014) Importance of initial state and atmospheric conditions for urban land surface models’ performance. Urban Climate, 10 (2). pp. 387-406. ISSN 2212-0955 doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2013.10.006 file
5. Best, M. J. and Grimmond, C. S. B. (2013) Analysis of the seasonal cycle within the first international urban land-surface model comparison. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 146 (3). pp. 421-446. ISSN 1573-1472 doi: 10.1007/s10546-012-9769-7
6. Grimmond, C. S. B., Blackett, M., Best, M. J., Baik, J. J., Belcher, S. E., Beringer, J., Bohnenstengel, S. I., Calmet, I., Chen, F., Coutts, A., Dandou, A., Fortuniak, K., Gouvea, M. L., Hamdi, R., Hendry, M., Kanda, M., Kawai, T., Kawamoto, Y., Kondo, H., Krayenhoff, E. S., Lee, S. H., Loridan, T., Martilli, A., Masson, V., Miao, S., Oleson, K., Ooka, R., Pigeon, G., Porson, A., Ryu, Y. H., Salamanca, F., Steeneveld, G. J., Tombrou, M., Voogt, J. A., Young, D.T. and Zhang, N. (2011) Initial results from Phase 2 of the international urban energy balance model comparison. International Journal of Climatology, 31 (2). pp. 244-272. ISSN 1097-0088 doi: 10.1002/joc.2227 file
7. Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C.S.B. and Harding, R. J. (2011) The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description – part 1: energy and water fluxes. Geoscientific Model Development, 4 (1). pp. 677-699. ISSN 1991-9603 doi: 10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011 file
8. Grimmond, C.S.B., Blackett, M., Best, M. J., Barlow, J., Baik, J.-J., Belcher, S. E., Bohnenstengel, S. I., Calmet, I., Chen, F., Dandou, A., Fortuniak, K., Gouvea, M. L., Hamdi, R., Hendry, M., Kawai, T., Kawamoto, Y., Kondo, H., Krayenhoff, E. S., Lee, S.-H., Loridan, T., Martilli, A., Masson, V., Miao, S., Oleson, K., Pigeon, G., Porson, A., Ryu, Y.-H., Salamanca, F., Shashua-Bar, L., Steeneveld, G.-J., Tombrou, M., Voogt, J., Young, D. and Zhang, N. (2010) The International Urban Energy Balance Models Comparison Project: First Results from Phase 1. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49 (6). pp. 1268-1292. ISSN 1558-8432 doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2354.1 file
9. Loridan, T., Grimmond, C. S. B., Grossman-Clarke, S., Chen, F., Tewari, M., Manning, K., Martilli, A., Kusaka, H. and Best, M. (2010) Trade-offs and responsiveness of the single-layer urban canopy parametrization in WRF: an offline evaluation using the MOSCEM optimization algorithm and field observations. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136 (649). pp. 997-1019. ISSN 1477-870X doi: 10.1002/qj.614 file
10. Grimmond, C.S.B., Roth, M., Oke, T.R., Au, Y.C., Best, M., Betts, R., Carmichael, G., Cleugh, H., Dabberdt, W., Emmanuel, R., Freitas, E., Fortuniak, K., Hanna, S., Klein, P., Kalkstein, L.S., Liu, C.H., Nickson, A., Pearlmutter, D., Sailor, D. and Voogt, J. (2010) Climate and more sustainable cities: climate information for improved planning and management of cities (producers/capabilities perspective). Procedia Environmental Sciences, 1. pp. 247-274. ISSN 1878-0296 doi: 10.1016/j.proenv.2010.09.016 (World Climate Conference – 3) file
11. Grimmond, C. S. B., Best, M., Barlow, J., Arnfield, A. J., Baik, J.-J., Baklanov, A., Belcher, S., Bruse, M., Calmet, I., Chen, F., Clark, P., Dandou, A., Erell, E., Fortuniak, K., Hamdi, R., Kanda, M., Kawai, T., Kondo, H., Krayenhoff, S., Lee, S. H., Limor, S.-B., Martilli, A., Masson, V., Miao, S., Mills, G., Moriwaki, R., Oleson, K., Porson, A., Sievers, U., Tombrou, M., Voogt, J. and Williamson, T. (2009) Urban surface energy balance models: model characteristics and methodology for a comparison study. In: Baklanov, A. , Grimmond, S., Mahura, A. and Athanassiadou, M. (eds.) Meteorological and Air Quality Models for Urban Areas. Springer, pp. 97-123. ISBN 9783642002977 doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-00298-4_11

Grimmond CSB, M Blackett, MJ Best, J-J Baik, SE Belcher, J Beringer, SI Bohnenstengel, I Calmet, F Chen, A Coutts, A Dandou, K Fortuniak, ML Gouvea, R Hamdi, M Hendry, M Kanda, T Kawai, Y Kawamoto, H Kondo, ES Krayenhoff, S-H Lee, T Loridan, A Martilli, V Masson S Miao, K Oleson, R Ooka, G Pigeon, A Porson, Y-H Ryu, F Salamanca, G-J Steeneveld, M Tombrou, JA Voogt, D Young, N Zhang (2011) Initial Results from Phase 2 of the International Urban Energy Balance Comparison Project, International Journal of Climatology 31:244–272 DOI: 10.1002/joc.2227 pdf

Grimmond CSB, M Blackett, M Best, J Barlow, JJ Baik, S Belcher, SI Bohnenstengel, I Calmet, F Chen, A Dandou, K Fortuniak, ML Gouvea, R Hamdi, M Hendry, T Kawai, Y Kawamoto, H Kondo, ES Krayenhoff, SH Lee, T Loridan, A Martilli, V Masson, S Miao, K Oleson, G Pigeon, A Porson, YH Ryu, F Salamanca, GJ Steeneveld, M Tombrou, J Voogt, D Young, N Zhang (2010) The International Urban Energy Balance Models Comparison Project: First results from Phase 1 Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology, 49, 1268-92, doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2354.1 pdf

Grimmond CSB, M Best, J Barlow and AJ Arnfield J-J Baik, S Belcher, M Bruse, I Calmet, F Chen, P Clark, A Dandou, E Erell, K Fortuniak, R Hamdi, M Kanda, T Kawai, H Kondo, S Krayenhoff, SH Lee, S-B Limor, A Martilli, V Masson, S Miao, G Mills, R Moriwaki, K Oleson, A Porson, U Sievers, M Tombrou, J Voogt, T Williamson. (2009) Urban surface energy balance models: model characteristics and methodology for a comparison study. in Urbanization of Meteorological and Air Quality Models, (eds) Baklanov A, CSB Grimmond, A Mahura, M Athanassiadou Springer-Verlag, ISBN: 978-3-642-00297-7, 97-123.


Acknowledgments
. Funded (Grimmond) by the Met Office (P001550), European Union Framework7 (7FP7-
ENV-2007-1): MEGAPOLI(212520), BRIDGE(211345).

Contribution to COST728 (Enhancing mesoscale meteorological modeling capabilities fo air pollution and dispersion applications).

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