Urban Radiation – Energy and Water Balance Models

July 2017: See UMEP

NameLocal-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme Flux Ratio – Active Index Surface Exchange Large scale Urban Consumption of energYGreater London QF
Complexity Simpler More complexSimplestSimpleSimple
Software provided Windows exe (written in Fortran)Fortran (Windows etc/Linux/ Mac) R codeWindows GUI Windows GUI
Applicable period hourly 5 min-hourly-annual Midday (within 3 h of solar noon)hourly – annual30 min – annual
Unique featuresradiation and energy balances radiation/ energy and water balance (includes LUMPS) calculates active surface – and fluxesanthropogenic heat flux only  anthropogenic heat flux for London
ManualManual Manual Manual  Manual
AccessSoftware download formSoftware download formSoftware download form Software download form  Software download form
Latest Version: LUMPS v6.0/in SUEWS V2014b V2016a  2012  V2014a (25 June 2014)
Main References2/3/51/ 2/ 9/10/111712/1314

References – see below

Sub-Models/ Fluxes

net all-wave radiationQ* NARP (Net All-wave Radiation Parameterization)6- 7-8
storage heat flux∆QS OHM (Objective Hysteresis Model) 3 – 4
latent heat fluxQE LUMPS 5
latent heat fluxQE SUEWS10 – 11
turbulent sensible heat fluxQH LUMPS5
turbulent sensible heat fluxQH SUEWS10
Water balanceSUEWS10
anthropogenic heatQFLUCY12 – 13
anthopogenic heatQFSUEWS10 – 6
anthropogenic heatQF GreaterQF14
anthropogenic heatQF LUMPS6
Sky View FactorSVF from digital images16
Sky View FactorSVF from Digital elevation model (DEM)15

Sky View Factor from digital images   Software download form

OutputFile generated: svf_res.txt
SVF    1-SVF   WHITE   BLACK    %WHITE   nring   ny    ichoice   FOV  Input File
InputFile with list of files: file_in.svf
contents: list of filenames with images to be analysed  –  quote marks should be around each filename
Format of files analyzed:  pgm format
can be generated using IfranView   The image should only have two colors (black and white)


1Grimmond CSB  Oke TR. & Steyn DG (1986). Urban water balance: 1. A model for daily totals. Water Resources Research 22(10) 1397-140SUEWS.
2 Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1991). An evapotranspiration-interception model for urban areas. Water Resources Research 27(7) 1739-1755SUEWS
3Grimmond CSB  Cleugh HA & Oke TR (1991). An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmospheric Environment 25B 311-326OHM – SUEWS –  LUMPS
4Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999). Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. Journal of Applied Meteorology 38 922-940 OHM – SUEWS – LUMPS
5Grimmond CSB. & Oke TR (2002). Turbulent heat fluxes in urban areas: Observations and a local-scale urban meteorological parameterization scheme (LUMPS). Journal of Applied Meteorology 41 792-810LUMP
6Loridan T – CSB Grimmond BD Offerle DT Young T Smith L Jarvi F Lindberg (2011). Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): longwave radiation parameterization & seasonality related developments Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology.doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2474.1 (pdf)LUMPS
7Offerle B  Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2003). Parameterization of net all-wave radiation for urban areas.Journal of Applied Meteorology 42 1157-1173NARP – SUEWS – LUMPS
8Offerle B (2003) The energy balance of an urban area: Examining temporal and spatial variability through measurements – remote sensing and modeling. PhD thesis Indiana UniversityLUMPS
9  Xu W Wooster MJ & Grimmond CSB (2008). Modelling of urban sensible heat flux at multiple spatial scales: A demonstration using hyperspectral imagery of Shanghai and a temperature-emissivity separation approach. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 3493-3510LUMPS – NARP – OHM.
10Järvi L – CSB Grimmond A Christen (2011) TheSurface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Vancouver  and Los Angeles. Journal of Hydrology doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.001 pdfSUEWS
11 Järvi L Grimmond CSB Taka M Nordbo A Setälä H  & Strachan IB (2014)Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities. Geoscientific Model Development 7 1691-1711. doi: 10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014SUEWS
12 Allen L – F Lindberg CSB Grimmond (2011) Global to city scale model for anthropogenic heat flux International Journal of Climatology 31 1990-2005LUCY
13 Lindberg F Grimmond CSB Nithiandamdan Y Kotthaus S Allen L (2013) Impact of city changes and weather on anthropogenic heat flux in Europe 1995–2015 Urban Climate
14 Iamarino M Sean Beevers CSB Grimmond (2011) High Resolution (Space – Time) Anthropogenic Heat Emissions: London 1970 – 2025. International Journal of ClmatologyGreaterQF
15Lindberg F & CSB Grimmond 2010:  Continuous sky view factor from high resolution urban digital elevation models Climate Research  42: 177-183 doi:10.3354/cr00882SVF
16Grimmond CSB – SK Potter – HN Zutter & C Souch 2001: Rapid methods to estimate sky view factors applied to urban areas. International Journal of Climatology 21 903-913SVF
17Loridan T & CSB Grimmond (2012) Characterization of energy flux partitioning in urban environments: links with surface seasonal properties Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51 219-241 doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-038.1   pdf   colour figures